There are a number of tests in this category. The most common tests are used to determine your speech reception threshold (SRT) and your speech detection threshold (SDT).
Your SRT is a measurement of the faintest speech that you can hear. The SDT measures your ability to understand speech. The tester will read a series of words aloud in various listening environments and at a variety of pitches. One version of the test will have you indicate every time you heard and understood the words. Another version will require you to repeat the words you just heard back to the tester.